Stucture of Argument for Winning a Debate
1 Carry your opponent's proposition beyond its natural limits;
The more general your opponent's statement becomes, the more
objections you can find against it.
The more restricted
and narrow your own propositions remain, the
easier they are to defend.
2 Use different meanings of your opponent's
words to refute his
Example: Person A says, "You do not understand the mysteries of
B replies, "Of, if it's mysteries you're talking about, I'll
have nothing to do with them."
3 Ignore your opponent's
proposition, which was intended to refer to
some particular thing.
Rather, understand it in some quite different sense,
and then refute
Attack something different than what was asserted.
4 Hide your conclusion from your opponent
until the end.
Mingle your premises here and there in your talk.
Get your opponent to agree to them in no definite order.
this circuitous route you conceal your goal until you have
reached all the admissions necessary to reach your goal.
Use your opponent's beliefs against him.
If your opponent refuses to accept your premises, use his own
premises to your
Example, if the opponent is a member of an organization or a
religious sect to which you do not belong, you
may employ the
declared opinions of this group against the opponent.
6 Confuse the issue by changing your opponent's
words or what he or
she seeks to prove.
Example: Call something by a different name: "good repute" instead
"virtue" instead of "virginity," "red-blooded" instead
7 State your proposition and show the truth
of it by asking the
opponent many questions.
By asking many wide-reaching questions at once, you may hide what
want to get admitted.
Then you quickly propound the argument resulting from the
your opponent angry.
An angry person is less capable of using judgment or perceiving
where his or her advantage lies.
Use your opponent's answers to your question to reach different or
even opposite conclusions.
10 If you opponent
answers all your questions negatively and refuses
to grant you any points, ask him or her to concede the opposite of
This may confuse the opponent as to which point you actually seek
him to concede.
11 If the opponent
grants you the truth of some of your premises,
refrain from asking him or her to agree to your conclusion.
your conclusions as a settled and admitted fact.
Your opponent and others in attendance may come to believe that your
12 If the argument turns upon general ideas with no particular
names, you must use language or a metaphor
that is favorable to your
Example: What an impartial person would call "public worship" or
of religion" is described by an adherent as "piety"
or "godliness" and by an opponent as "bigotry" or "superstition."
other words, inset what you intend to prove into the definition
of the idea.
13 To make your opponent accept a proposition
, you must give him an
opposite, counter-proposition as well.
If the contrast is glaring, the opponent will accept your
to avoid being paradoxical.
Example: If you want him to admit that a boy must to everything that
his father tells him
to do, ask him, "whether in all things we must
obey or disobey our parents."
Or , if a thing is said to occur "often"
you are to understand few
or many times, the opponent will say "many."
It is as though you were to put gray next to
black and call it
white; or gray next to white and call it black.
14 Try to bluff your opponent.
If he or she
has answered several of your question without the
answers turning out in favor of your conclusion, advance your
triumphantly, even if it does not follow.
If your opponent is shy or stupid, and you yourself possess a great
impudence and a good voice, the technique may succeed.
15 If you wish to advance a proposition that is difficult to
put it aside for the moment.
Instead, submit for your opponent's acceptance or rejection some
as though you wished to draw your proof from it.
Should the opponent reject it because he suspects a trick, you can
your triumph by showing how absurd the opponent is to reject
an obviously true proposition.
Should the opponent accept
it, you now have reason on your side for
You can either try to prove your original proposition, as in #14,
that your original proposition is proved by what your
For this an extreme degree of impudence is
required, but experience
shows cases of it succeeding.
16 When your opponent puts forth a proposition, find it inconsistent
his or her other statements, beliefs, actions or lack of action.
Example: Should your opponent defend suicide, you may
exclaim, "Why don't you hang yourself?"
Should the opponent maintain that his city is an unpleasant place to
you may say, "Why don't you leave on the first plane?"
17 If your opponent presses you with a counter-proof, you will
be able to save yourself by advancing some subtle distinction.
Try to find a second meaning or an ambiguous sense
18 If your opponent has taken up a line of argument that will end in
your defeat, you
must not allow him to carry it to its conclusion.
Interrupt the dispute, break it off altogether, or lead the opponent
a different subject.
19 Should your opponent expressly challenge you to produce any
objection to some definite point
in his argument, and you have
nothing to say, try to make the argument less specific.
Example: If you are asked why
a particular hypothesis cannot be
accepted, you may speak of the fallibility of human knowledge, and
give various illustrations
20 If your opponent has admitted to all or most of your premises, do
not ask him or her directly to accept
Rather, draw the conclusion yourself as if it too had been admitted.
21 When your opponent uses
an argument that is superficial and you
see the falsehood, you can refute it by setting forth its
it is better to meet the opponent with acounter-argument that is
just as superficial, and so dispose of him.
is with victory that you are concerned, not with truth.
Example: If the opponent appeals to prejudice, emotion or attacks
personally, return the attack in the same manner.
22 If your opponent asks you to admit something from which the point
dispute will immediately follow, you must refuse to do so,
declaring that it begs the question.
and contention irritate a person into exaggerating
By contradicting your opponent you may drive him
into extending the
statement beyond its natural limit.
When you then contradict the exaggerated form of it, you look
though you had refuted the original statement.
Contrarily, if your opponent tries to extend your own statement
than your intended, redefine your statement's limits and
say, "That is what I said, no more."
24 State a false syllogism.
opponent makes a proposition, and by false inference and
distortion of his ideas you force from the proposition other
that are not intended and that appear absurd.
It then appears that opponent's proposition gave rise to these
and so appears to be indirectly refuted.
25 If your opponent is making a generalization, find an instance to
Only one valid contradiction is needed to overthrow the opponent's
Example: "All ruminants
are horned," is a generalization that may be
upset by the single instance of the camel.
26 A brilliant move is to
turn the tables and use your opponent's
arguments against himself.
Example: Your opponent declares: "so and so is a
child, you must
make an allowance for him."
You retort, "Just because he is a child, I must correct him;
he will persist in his bad habits."
27 Should your opponent suprise you by becoming particularly angry
at an argument,
you must urge it with all the more zeal.
No only will this make your opponent angry, but it will appear that
put your finger on the weak side of his case, and your
opponent is more open to attack on this point than you expected.
When the audience consists of individuals (or a person) who is
not an expert on a subject, you make an invalid objection
opponent who seems to be defeated in the eyes of the audience.
This strategy is particularly effective if your
objection makes your
opponent look ridiculous or if the audience laughs.
If your opponent must make a long, winded and
explanation to correct you, the audience will not be disposed to
listen to him.
29 If you find that
you are being beaten, you can create a diversion-
-that is, you can suddenly begin to talk of something else, as
it had a bearing on the matter in dispute.
This may be done without presumption if the diversion has some
on the matter.
30 Make an appeal to authority rather than reason.
If your opponent respects an authority or an expert,
authority to further your case.
If needed, quote what the authority said in some other sense or
that your opponent fails to understand are those which
he generally admires the most.
You may also, should it be necessary,
not only twist your
authorities, but actually falsify them, or quote something that you
have entirely invented yourself.
If you know that you have no reply to the arguments that your
opponent advances, you by a find stroke of irony declare
be an incompetent judge.
Example: "What you say passes my poor powers of comprehension; it
may well be
all very true, but I can't understand it, and I refrain
from any expression of opinion on it."
In this way you insinuate
to the audience, with whom you are in good
repute, that what your opponent says is nonsense.
This technique may be used
only when you are quite sure that the
audience thinks much better of you than your opponent.
32 A quick way of getting
rid of an opponent's assertion, or of
throwing suspicion on it, is by putting it into some odious category.
You can say, "That is fascism" or "Atheism"
In making an objection of this kind you take for granted
the assertion or question is identical with, or at least
contained in, the category cited;
2)The system referred
to has been entirely refuted by the current
33 You admit your opponent's premises but deny the conclusion.
"That's all very well in theory, but it won't work in
34 When you state a question or an argument, and
your opponent gives
you no direct answer, or evades it with a counter question, or tries
to change the subject, it is
sure sign you have touched a weak spot,
sometimes without intending to do so.
You have, as it were, reduced your
opponent to silence.
You must, therefore, urge the point all the more, and not let your
opponent evade it, even when
you do not know where the weakness that
you have hit upon really lies.
35 Instead of working on an opponent's intellect
or the rigor of his
arguments, work on his motive.
If you success in making your opponent's opinion, should it prove
seem distinctly prejudicial to his own interest, he will drop
Example: A clergyman is defending
some philosophical dogma.
You show him that his proposition contradicts a fundamental doctrine
of his church.
will abandon the argument.
36 You may also puzzle and bewilder your opponent by mere bombast.
If your opponent is
weak or does not wish to appear as if he has no
idea what your are talking about, you can easily impose upon him
argument that sounds very deep or learned, or that sounds
37 Should your opponent be in the right
but, luckily for you, choose
a faulty proof, you can easily refute it and then claim that you
have refuted the whole
This is the way in which bad advocates lose good cases.
If no accurate proof occurs to your opponent, you
have won the day.
38 Become personal, insulting and rude as soon as you perceive that
your opponent has the upper
In becoming personal you leave the subject altogether, and turn your
attack on the person by remarks of an offensive
This is a very popular technique, because it takes so little skill
to put it into effect.